Quantum Versus Classical Computing and the Quantum Threat

How is quantum computing different than classical computing? What can a quantum computer achieve that a classical computer cannot? What risks do quantum computers pose to society and global business? The following post dives into these questions and others.

First, a quantum computer uses a quantum property called superposition or qubits to store data. Unlike a classical computer whose bits of data can exist as either a zero or a 1, a qubit can be a zero, 1, or both at the same time. This capacity of qubits to exist in an indeterminate state enables them to perform several calculations simultaneously at speeds greater than the speeds practically achievable by classical computers.

This opens the door to solving many real-world problems that would take a classical computer hundreds, if not thousands of years to solve. This is why experts believe that quantum computing will find dozens of applications in future. Soon, you can expect quantum security and quantum communications to be the norm. Quantum technology will power message encryption for more secure messaging, and quantum authentication will play an enabling role in data and information security.

Quantum Versus Classical Computing

In general, classical software development translates a programming language source code into platform-specific ‘machine code’ and operations (gates) that are performed on thousands of transistors. Similar to how classical gates manipulate bits, in quantum computing, quantum gates manipulate qubits.

In classical computers, an algorithm usually requires lots of parallel computations which can be time-consuming. But quantum programming will take into account multiple options at the same time and execute an algorithm on all options in a single step. One key opportunity for advancing quantum computing lies in identifying methods to express quantum applications using high-level abstractions, then compiling and mapping these onto quantum simulators. A simulator can implement expected behaviours based on qubits and quantum gates to produce the same results that would be produced on a real quantum computer. It can be used to work on quantum algorithms and improve them to make them usable when quantum computers are finally available for real-world applications. However, it will be slower than a real quantum computer, since the quantum effects that will give the latter its fast speeds will have to be simulated on this machine using classical software.

Quantum Computing and the Quantum Threat

Currently, expertise and costs of building quantum computers combined with the slow pace of quantum algorithm and hardware development are huge hurdles to this technology’s commercial availability. But these problems can be overcome; for example, quantum-accelerated computing as a cloud service could be a promising approach for large-scale commercialization. Furthermore, the quantum systems of tomorrow will be hybrids of classical and quantum units, with a typical application containing both classical and quantum code.

In the near future, one of the fields that will be completely disrupted by quantum computing is cryptography. Current cryptographic systems are fairly safe because their underlying mathematical algorithms cannot be broken by classical computers in a reasonable timeframe. But once sufficiently powerful quantum computers are developed, this safety will become an illusion. This is worrying because business models, IT infrastructure and software systems that rely on these algorithms rarely get re-factored quickly, so making them quantum-safe will take several years. As such, efforts are underway to find ‘post-quantum’ public-key cryptosystems that will resist future quantum attacks.

Quantropi’s QEEP™ Achieves Perfect Secrecy

Here’s the very good news. Quantropi has already developed a quantum-safe solution that achieves Perfect Secrecy, today. This novel solution, QEEP™ (Quantum Entropy Expansion and Propagation), is highly effective at protecting against quantum attacks. This lightweight, energy-saving solution works well with numerous real-world applications including IoT devices, and restricted-space environments like smart cards. It is also suitable for critical environments like autonomous vehicles requiring ultra-reliable low latency communication (URLLC).

Based on the uncertainty principle and using quantum permutation gates, QEEP™ can distribute keys over today’s Internet in perfect secrecy. It provides an easy-to-deploy, cost-effective solution for point-to-point, app-to-app, and device-to-device security. It can also be easily integrated with today’s web applications or frameworks to add quantum security while effortlessly maintaining existing user experiences. QEEP™ provides repeatable perfect secrecy at all endpoints, regardless of the communication medium.

To learn more about how QEEP™ guarantees quantum-safe communications, read our technical white paper here.

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Nick Kuang

As VP Corporate Services, Nick plans, directs and coordinates a wide range of activities aimed at achieving Quantropi’s vision of the Quantum Internet. He has a keen interest in transformative technologies and the possibilities they offer for bettering our everyday lives. A pharmacist by training, Nick nurtures teams with a focus on integrity and collaborative effort, coupled with strong attention to detail. With prior experience in a successful biotech start-up developing point-of-care test kits, he enjoys the fast pace and challenge of the start-up environment.

Dr. Randy Kuang

Randy holds a doctorate in quantum physics. His research findings have been published in top international journals and named “Kuang’s semi-classical formalism” by NASA in 2012. With a career spanning IT, including with Nortel as senior network researcher & developer, he co-founded inBay Technologies in 2009, serving as CTO of the cybersecurity platform. As the first recipient of a patent for two-level authentication (2011), Randy is a prolific inventor, with 30+ U.S. patents in broad technology fields, such as WiMAX, optical networks, multi-factor identity authentication, transaction authorization, as well as concepts, technologies and industrial applications for quantum key distribution.

Jason Burke

With 25 years of experience providing operational and financial expertise to rapidly growing companies, Jason oversees Quantropi’s financial planning and helps define the investment opportunity. Currently the Chief Executive Officer and Co-Founder of Positive Venture Group, a leading provider of outsourced finance, virtual CFO and executive consulting services, Jason previously served as COO and CFO of Conversant, VP Finance and Principal Accounting Officer at AVID Technologies, and CFO of IBM’s Business Analytics Division. There, in 2008, he oversaw the integration of major portions of IBM’s $5 Billion acquisition of Cognos, where he had held increasingly senior finance positions, including CFO.

Ken Dobell

Ken leads marketing strategy at Quantropi. In high demand as a consultant with 25 years’ experience in performance media and an award- winning creative background, he has completed successful transformations, (re)branding and product development mandates with KPMG, Keurig, Fidelity, Eddyfi, Coveo, and more, and provides digital advice to the CMA. Previously, Ken pivoted an offline advertising brokerage to a leading-edge, data-driven performance agency as President of DAC Digital, held a progression of international leadership roles with Monster.com, pioneered a range of multi-channel initiatives as VP Marketing with a global franchisor, and introduced a mobile-first programmatic media offering to Canada within WPP.

Raj Narula, P.Eng.

Raj is a seasoned technology executive who has worked with companies as an advisor, business builder and active angel investor. Raj is a seasoned technology executive who has worked with companies as an advisor, business builder and active angel investor. He has held operational and advisory roles in Recognia (Trading Central ), Belair Networks ( Ericsson) , March Networks ( Infinova) , Sandvine ( Procera ), Neurolanguage ( ADEC) ,Bridgewater Systems (Amdocs), Vayyoo ( Cafex ) TenXc ( CCI ),1Mobility ( Qualys ) and others. He has been dividing his time between North America, EMEA, and the Asia Pacific region for over 20 years and speaks multiple languages. He grew up in Asia, Europe, South America and Canada. Raj is also the co-founder and Charter Member of the Ottawa chapter of TiE (the Indus Entrepreneur). Raj holds a B.Eng degree in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Ottawa, Canada.

Michael Redding

Before joining Quantropi, Mike was Managing Director and co-founder of Accenture Ventures, where he grew a global portfolio of strategic partnerships and 38 equity investments in emerging technology startups.

During his nearly 30 years with Accenture, he incubated and launched technology innovations for enterprises across multiple geographies and industries. Ever-passionate about bold ideas with game-changing results, he speaks frequently on the impact of emerging technology on large organizations.

With a bachelor’s degree in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science from Princeton, and a Master’s in Biomedical Engineering from Northwestern, Mike is a former member of the Board of Directors for the Accenture Foundation and Board Observer for startups Maana and Splice Machine.

Alex He

Alex is a product-oriented project manager who bridges the gaps between the company’s engineering and commercial teams. He has over ten years of experience in the analysis, design and development of enterprise-class applications, with a particular focus on creating optimal user experiences (UX). Ever passionate about cybersecurity solutions that can deliver solid security without unreasonably sacrificing customer convenience, Alex is the lead inventor of a registered patent on user interface security. He is committed to helping ensure that the Agile software engineering team at Quantropi delivers consistently high-quality, high crypto-agility cybersecurity solutions for next-generation communications.

Tina Wang

Tina develops websites and participates in a range of different projects, using new frameworks for front-end UI, along with Vuejs, Angula, Beego, Ruby on Rails, and Electron. She developed Quantropi’s desktop CipherSpace application by integrating Electron, Webassembly and Go, to ensure a good user experience, as well as perfect operating system compatibility. She is also part of the dynamic and efficient QKD-NODE project team. Tina is always looking for new ways to increase her knowledge, improve her technological proficiency and enhance her strong execution and implementation skills. Prior to Quantropi, Tina served as a full-stack web developer at Sunny Future, where she maintained a WordPress home site and managed the release of new content for the company.

Bond Vo

Bond Vo is the Business Analyst of Quantropi. Along with Quantropi, Bond has been dynamic in accordance with a fast and evolving startup environment and is responsible in a wide range of areas including market research, funding, and more involved in the controller roles to oversee day to day accounting operation as well as build financing models and budget to achieve company’s ultimate goals/objectives. Bond has applied best practices consistently and successfully supports equity, debt, and non-dilutive funding for Quantropi since joint the team. He earned a Bachelor of Commerce concentrated in Finance from Carleton University. Outside of his professional career, Bond also participated in volunteer for the Vietnamese Immigration Student Association (VISA) to help and support students as well as newcomers in Canada.

Pauline Arnold

As James Nguyen’s EA, Pauline Arnold brings more than 40 years of experience in complementary customer service and administrative roles. Prior to Quantropi, she served 20 years as Branch Manager and an assistant in investments, and over 20 years at Metropolitan Life Canada in various aspects of the insurance sector – assisting clients, management and colleagues to complete tasks, solve problems, address questions and achieve goals. She also worked part-time for Royal Lepage Performance for 5+ years as a receptionist & admin, and for 5 years was chair of the TKFG’s charity golf tournament.

Dafu Lou

Dafu is Quantropi’s Director of engineering. Prior to Quantropi, he served as a technical leader at Irdeto, a world-leading provider of digital platform security software, where he was responsible for white-box cryptography, cloaked CA secure core, and iOS/android application protection services, among others. Prior to Irdeto, Dafu served as a senior software engineer at SecureNex Systems, where he led the implementation of an SSL-VPN solution and ECC-based secure data storage & PKI. He earned his Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of Ottawa in 2009. Dafu is also a part-time professor, teaching VLSI, Cryptography and other subjects at uOttawa.

Christopher McKenzie

With his extensive experience in software development and strong analytical skills, Chris can handle the entire end-to-end software development life cycle. Prior to Quantropi, he served as Director of Product Development at Sphyrna Security, Inc., where he managed the delivery of security compliance automation and data diode appliance products, and as Commercial Software Development Manager at Cord3, Inc., where he managed the development of an advanced data access policy management product. Chris graduated from Computer Science at Algonquin College and the Ottawa School of Arts in 1998. Read less

Eric Chan

Eric Chan a.k.a. EEPMON is a Crypto / Digital Artist with 15 years in the industry – and Quantropi’s Creative Emissary. His hybrid fractal/digital creations have been seen in fashion, comics to museums and has exhibited worldwide. EEPMON’s collaborations include Canada Goose, MARVEL, Snoopy, Microsoft Xbox, Canada Science & Technology Museum and was a TEDx performing artist. In 2018 he represented Canada on its first Creative Industries Trade Mission led by Canada’s Minister of Heritage and serves on the Canadian Museums Association‘s Board of Directors. At the same time, he is currently completing his Master of Information Technology – Digital Media at Carleton University. 

Patricio Mariaca

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James Nguyen

Prior to leading Quantropi, James was Chief Investment Officer & VP Asia Operations for a group of private and public real estate, mining, energy storage, graphene technologies and manufacturing interests, where, in his responsibilities for strategy, banking and global expansions, he secured large-scale investments and partnerships for commercializing graphene applications across multiple industries. A graduate of Carleton in Economics, he previously achieved success managing a mid-market portfolio (professional services, public sector, Asian markets) at RBC for over a decade. James has been on the HKCBA board, held advisory positions with technology start-ups and gives back as volunteer, fundraiser and mentor.